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Evidence

Article Citation
2.2.1 Amount  1 Hellstrom L, Ekelund P, Larsson M, Milsom I. Adapting incontinent patients incontinence aids to their leakage volumes. Scand J Caring Sci 1993;7(2):67-71.
2.2.1.2 Guideline Estimate  1 International Standards Organization. ISO 11948-1: Urine-absorbing aids Part 1: Whole product testing. Geneva: International Standards Organization; 1996. 1996.
2.2.4 Product choice  1 Gibb H, Wong G. How to choose: nurses' judgements of the effectiveness of a range of currently marketed continence aids. J Clin Nurs 1994 Mar;3(2):77-86.
 2 Proudfoot LM, Farmer ES, McIntosh JB. Testing incontinence pads using single-case research designs. Br J Nurs 1994 Apr 14;3(7):316, 318-20, 322.
 3 Phillips B, Zhao H. Predictors of assistive technology abandonment. Assist Technol 1993;5(1):36-45.
 4 McMillen A-M, Soderberg S. Disabled persons' experience of dependence on assistive devices. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy 2002;(9):176-83.
 5 Hocking C. Function or feelings: factors in abandonment of assistive devices. Technology and Disability 1999;(11):3-11.
 6 Koch T, Kralik D, Eastwood S, Schofield A. Breaking the silence: women living with multiple sclerosis and urinary incontinence. Int J Nurs Pract 2001 Feb;7(1):16-23.
2.3.1 Amount  1 Lewis SJ & Heaton KW. Stool form scale as a useful guide to intestinal transit time. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1997 Sep;32(9):920-4
2.6 Urinary Retention  1 Fowler C. Bladder Problems. Letchworth, UK: MS Research Trust; 1998.
 2 Logan K, Shaw C, Webber I, Samuel S, Broome L. Patients' experiences of learning clean intermittent self-catheterization: a qualitative study. J Adv Nurs 2008 Apr;62(1):32-40.
 3 Vahter L, Zopp L, Kreegipuu M, Kool P, Talvik T, Gross-Paju K. Clean intermittent self-catheterization in persons with multiple sclerosis: the influence of cognitive dysfunction. Multiple Sclerosis 2008.
 4 Woodbury MG, Hayes KC, Askes HK. Intermittent catheterization practices following spinal cord injury: a national survey. Can J Urol 2008 Jun;15(3):4065-71.
 5 De Ridder DJ, Everaert K, Fernandez LG, Valero JV, Duran AB, Abrisqueta ML, et al. Intermittent catheterisation with hydrophilic-coated catheters (SpeediCath) reduces the risk of clinical urinary tract infection in spinal cord injured patients: a prospective randomised parallel comparative trial. Eur Urol 2005 Dec;48(6):991-5.
 6 Moore KN, Fader M, Getliffe K. Long-term bladder management by intermittent catheterisation in adults and children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007;(4):CD006008.
 7 Chartier-Kastler E, Ballanger P, Petit J, Fourmarier M, Bart S, Ragni-Ghazarossian E, et al. Randomized, crossover study evaluating patient preference and the impact on quality of life or urisheaths vs absorbent products in incontinent men. BJU International 2011.
 8 Shekelle PG, Morton SC, Clark KA, Pathak M, Vickrey BG. Systematic review of risk factors for urinary tract infection in adults with spinal cord dysfunction. J Spinal Cord Med 1999;22(4):258-72.
 9 Johansson I, Athlin E, Frykholm L, Bolinder H, Larsson G. Intermittent versus indwelling catheters for older patients with hip fractures. J Clin Nurs 2002 Sep;11(5):651-6.
 10 Turi MH, Hanif S, Fasih Q, Shaikh MA. Proportion of complications in patients practicing clean intermittent self-catheterization (CISC) vs indwelling catheter. J Pak Med Assoc 2006 Sep;56(9):401-4.
 11 Wyndaele JJ. Intermittent catheterization: which is the optimal technique? Spinal Cord 2002 Sep;40(9):432-7.
 12 Perrouin-Verbe B, Labat JJ, Richard I, Mauduyt de lG, I, Buzelin JM, Mathe JF. Clean intermittent catheterisation from the acute period in spinal cord injury patients. Long term evaluation of urethral and genital tolerance. Paraplegia 1995 Nov;33(11):619-24.
 13 Michielsen DP, Wyndaele JJ. Management of false passages in patients practising clean intermittent self catheterisation. Spinal Cord 1999 Mar;37(3):201-3.
 14 Chen Y, DeVivo MJ, Lloyd LK. Bladder stone incidence in persons with spinal cord injury: determinants and trends, 1973-1996. Urology 2001 Nov;58(5):665-70.
2.1.1 Mobility  1 Fader M, Barnes E, Malone-Lee J, Cottenden A. Continence. Choosing the right garment. Nurs Times 1987 Apr 15;83(15):78-85.
2.1.4 Body Shape  1 Vickerman J. The benefits of a lending library for female urinals. Nursing Times 99(44):56-7, 2003 Nov 4;-10.
2.1.2 Hand Control  1 Vickerman J. Selecting urinals for male patients. Nursing Times 102(19):47-8, 2006 May 9;-15.
2.1.6 Day or Night  1 Fader M, Cottenden A, Getliffe K, Gage H, Clarke-O'Neill S, Jamieson K, et al. Absorbent products for urinary/faecal incontinence: a comparative evaluation of key product designs. Health Technol Assess 2008 Jul;12(29):iii-185.
2.1.8 Laundry  1 Aumônier S, Collins M. Life cycle assessment of disposable and reusable nappies in the UK. London: Environmental Agency; 2005.
2.1.11 Independence  1 Naylor JR, Mulley GP. Commodes: inconvenient conveniences. BMJ 1993 Nov 13;307(6914):1258-60.
3 Products  1 Fader M, Cottenden A, Getliffe K, Gage H, Clarke-O'Neill S, Jamieson K, et al. Absorbent products for urinary/faecal incontinence: a comparative evaluation of key product designs. Health Technol Assess 2008 Jul;12(29):iii-185.
 2 Chartier-Kastler E, Ballanger P, Petit J, Fourmarier M, Bart S, Ragni-Ghazarossian E, et al. Randomized, crossover study evaluating patient preference and the impact on quality of life or urisheaths vs absorbent products in incontinent men. BJU International 2011.
 3 Paterson J, Dunn S, Kowanko I, van LA, Stein I, Pretty L. Selection of continence products: perspectives of people who have incontinence and their carers. Disability & Rehabilitation 25(17):955-63, 2003 Sep 2.
3.1 Pads  1 Teunissen TAM, Lagro-Janssen ALM. Sex differences in the use of absorbent (incontinence) pads in independently living elderly people: do men receive less care? Int J Clin Pract 2009.
 2 Fader M, Cottenden A, Getliffe K, Gage H, Clarke-O'Neill S, Jamieson K, et al. Absorbent products for urinary/faecal incontinence: a comparative evaluation of key product designs. Health Technol Assess 2008 Jul;12(29):iii-185.
 3 Getliffe K, Fader M, Cottenden A, Jamieson K, Green N. Absorbent products for incontinence: 'treatment effects' and impact on quality of life. Journal of Clinical Nursing 16(10):1936-45, 2007 Oct.
 4 Cottenden AM, Fader MJ, Pettersson L, Clinton L, Dean GE, Malone-Lee J, et al. Disposable, shaped bodyworn pads with pants for heavy incontinence. London, UK: Medical Devices Agency; 1998. Report No.: IN1.
 5 Clarke-O'Neill S, Fader MJ, Pettersson L, Clinton L, Dean G, Malone-Lee J, et al. Disposable pads for light incontinence. London, UK: Medical Devices Agency; 2002. Report No.: IN9.
 6 International Standards Organization. ISO 11948-1: Urine-absorbing aids Part 1: Whole product testing. Geneva: International Standards Organization; 1996. 1996.
 7 Aumônier S, Collins M. Life cycle assessment of disposable and reusable nappies in the UK. London: Environmental Agency; 2005.
 8 Grant R. Washable pads or disposable diapers? Geriatr Nurs 1982 Jul;3(4):248-51.
 9 Brown DS. Diapers and underpads, Part 2: Cost outcomes. Ostomy Wound Manage 1994 Nov;40(9):34-6, 38, 40.
 10 Hu TW, Kaltreider DL, Igou JF. Disposable versus reusable incontinent products: a controlled cost-effectiveness experiment. Ostomy Wound Manage 1988;21:46-53.
 11 Beber CR. Freedom for the incontinent. Am J Nurs 1980 Mar;80(3):482-4.
 12 Cottenden AM, Ledger DJ. Predicting the leakage performance of bodyworn disposable incontinence pads using laboratory tests. J Biomed Eng 1993 May;15(3):212-20.
 13 Cottenden AM, Fader MJ, Pettersson L, Brooks RJ. How well does ISO 11948-1 (the Rothwell method) for measuring the absorption capacity of incontinence pads in the laboratory correlate with clinical pad performance. Medical Engineering & Physics 25(7):603-13, 2003 Sep.
3.1.1 Light bladder leakage in women  1 Fader M, Cottenden A, Getliffe K, Gage H, Clarke-O'Neill S, Jamieson K, et al. Absorbent products for urinary/faecal incontinence: a comparative evaluation of key product designs. Health Technol Assess 2008 Jul;12(29):iii-185.
 2 Fader M, Cottenden AM, Getliffe K. Absorbent products for light urinary incontinence in women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007.
3.1.1.1 Disposable Pads  1 Fader M, Cottenden A, Getliffe K, Gage H, Clarke-O'Neill S, Jamieson K, et al. Absorbent products for urinary/faecal incontinence: a comparative evaluation of key product designs. Health Technol Assess 2008 Jul;12(29):iii-185.
 2 Clarke-O'Neill S, Pettersson L, Fader M, Cottenden A, Brooks R. A multicenter comparative evaluation: disposable pads for women with light incontinence. Journal of Wound, Ostomy, & Continence Nursing 31(1):32-42, 2004 Jan;-Feb.
 3 Erekson EA, Meyer SA, Melick C, McLennan MT. Incontinence pads: recommending the best product-based wetback performance and price. Int Urogynecol J 2008.
 4 Thornburn P, Fader M, Dean G, Brooks R, Cottenden A. Improving the performance of small incontinence pads: a study of "wet comfort". J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs 1997 Jul;24(4):219-25.
3.1.1.2 Washable Pads  1 Fader M, Cottenden A, Getliffe K, Gage H, Clarke-O'Neill S, Jamieson K, et al. Absorbent products for urinary/faecal incontinence: a comparative evaluation of key product designs. Health Technol Assess 2008 Jul;12(29):iii-185.
3.1.1.3 Sanitary Towels  1 Fader M, Cottenden A, Getliffe K, Gage H, Clarke-O'Neill S, Jamieson K, et al. Absorbent products for urinary/faecal incontinence: a comparative evaluation of key product designs. Health Technol Assess 2008 Jul;12(29):iii-185.
 2 Baker J, Norton P. Evaluation of absorbent products for women with mild to moderate urinary incontinence. Appl Nurs Res 1996 Feb;9(1):29-33.
3.1.1.4 Washable Pants  1 Clarke-O'Neill S, Pettersson L, Fader M, Dean G, Brooks R, Cottenden A. A multicentre comparative evaluation: washable pants with an integral pad for light incontinence. J Clin Nurs 2002 Jan;11(1):79-89.
 2 Fader M, Cottenden A, Getliffe K, Gage H, Clarke-O'Neill S, Jamieson K, et al. Absorbent products for urinary/faecal incontinence: a comparative evaluation of key product designs. Health Technol Assess 2008 Jul;12(29):iii-185.
3.1.1.5 Small Disposable Pants  1 Fader M, Cottenden A, Getliffe K, Gage H, Clarke-O'Neill S, Jamieson K, et al. Absorbent products for urinary/faecal incontinence: a comparative evaluation of key product designs. Health Technol Assess 2008 Jul;12(29):iii-185.
3.1.2 Moderate / heavy bladder leakage in women  1 Fader M, Cottenden A, Getliffe K, Gage H, Clarke-O'Neill S, Jamieson K, et al. Absorbent products for urinary/faecal incontinence: a comparative evaluation of key product designs. Health Technol Assess 2008 Jul;12(29):iii-185.
3.1.2.1 Large Disposable Pants  1 Fader M, Cottenden A, Getliffe K, Gage H, Clarke-O'Neill S, Jamieson K, et al. Absorbent products for urinary/faecal incontinence: a comparative evaluation of key product designs. Health Technol Assess 2008 Jul;12(29):iii-185.
3.1.2.2 Disposable Pads  1 Fader M, Cottenden A, Getliffe K, Gage H, Clarke-O'Neill S, Jamieson K, et al. Absorbent products for urinary/faecal incontinence: a comparative evaluation of key product designs. Health Technol Assess 2008 Jul;12(29):iii-185.
 2 Clancy B, Malone-Lee J. Reducing the leakage of body-worn incontinence pads. J Adv Nurs 1991 Feb;16(2):187-93.
 3 Fader MJ, Pettersson L, Clinton L, Dean GE, Brooks RD, Cottenden AM. Disability Equipment Assessment Report, All-in-one disposable bodyworn pads for heavy incontinence. Medical Devices Agency (UK); 1999. Report No.: IN.4.
3.1.2.3 All-in-Ones  1 Fader M, Cottenden A, Getliffe K, Gage H, Clarke-O'Neill S, Jamieson K, et al. Absorbent products for urinary/faecal incontinence: a comparative evaluation of key product designs. Health Technol Assess 2008 Jul;12(29):iii-185.
 2 Fader MJ, Pettersson L, Clinton L, Dean GE, Brooks RD, Cottenden AM. Disability Equipment Assessment Report, All-in-one disposable bodyworn pads for heavy incontinence. Medical Devices Agency (UK); 1999. Report No.: IN.4.
3.1.2.4 Washable Pads  1 Fader M, Cottenden A, Getliffe K, Gage H, Clarke-O'Neill S, Jamieson K, et al. Absorbent products for urinary/faecal incontinence: a comparative evaluation of key product designs. Health Technol Assess 2008 Jul;12(29):iii-185.
3.1.2.5 T-Shape Pads  1 Fader M, Cottenden A, Getliffe K, Gage H, Clarke-O'Neill S, Jamieson K, et al. Absorbent products for urinary/faecal incontinence: a comparative evaluation of key product designs. Health Technol Assess 2008 Jul;12(29):iii-185.
3.1.3 Light bladder leakage in men  1 Macaulay M, Pettersson L, Fader M, Brooks R, Cottenden A. Absorbent products for men with light incontinence: an evaluation. UK: Medical Devices Agency; 2005.
3.1.3.1 Disposable Pads  1 Macaulay M, Pettersson L, Fader M, Brooks R, Cottenden A. Absorbent products for men with light incontinence: an evaluation. UK: Medical Devices Agency; 2005.
3.1.3.2 Disposable Pouches  1 Macaulay M, Pettersson L, Fader M, Brooks R, Cottenden A. Absorbent products for men with light incontinence: an evaluation. UK: Medical Devices Agency; 2005.
3.1.3.3 Disposable Leafs  1 Macaulay M, Pettersson L, Fader M, Brooks R, Cottenden A. Absorbent products for men with light incontinence: an evaluation. UK: Medical Devices Agency; 2005.
3.1.3.4 Washable Leafs  1 Macaulay M, Pettersson L, Fader M, Brooks R, Cottenden A. Absorbent products for men with light incontinence: an evaluation. UK: Medical Devices Agency; 2005.
3.1.3.5 Washable Pads  1 Fader M, Cottenden A, Getliffe K, Gage H, Clarke-O'Neill S, Jamieson K, et al. Absorbent products for urinary/faecal incontinence: a comparative evaluation of key product designs. Health Technol Assess 2008 Jul;12(29):iii-185.
3.1.3.6 Washable Pants  1 Macaulay M, Pettersson L, Fader M, Brooks R, Cottenden A. Absorbent products for men with light incontinence: an evaluation. UK: Medical Devices Agency; 2005.
3.1.3.7 Disposable Pants  1 Fader M, Cottenden A, Getliffe K, Gage H, Clarke-O'Neill S, Jamieson K, et al. Absorbent products for urinary/faecal incontinence: a comparative evaluation of key product designs. Health Technol Assess 2008 Jul;12(29):iii-185.
3.1.4 Moderate / heavy bladder leakage in men  1 Fader M, Cottenden A, Getliffe K, Gage H, Clarke-O'Neill S, Jamieson K, et al. Absorbent products for urinary/faecal incontinence: a comparative evaluation of key product designs. Health Technol Assess 2008 Jul;12(29):iii-185.
3.1.4.1 Disposable Pads  1 Fader M, Cottenden A, Getliffe K, Gage H, Clarke-O'Neill S, Jamieson K, et al. Absorbent products for urinary/faecal incontinence: a comparative evaluation of key product designs. Health Technol Assess 2008 Jul;12(29):iii-185.
 2 Fader MJ, Pettersson L, Clinton L, Dean GE, Brooks RD, Cottenden AM. Disability Equipment Assessment Report, All-in-one disposable bodyworn pads for heavy incontinence. Medical Devices Agency (UK); 1999. Report No.: IN.4.
 3 Clancy B, Malone-Lee J. Reducing the leakage of body-worn incontinence pads. J Adv Nurs 1991 Feb;16(2):187-93.
3.1.4.2 All-in-Ones  1 Fader M, Cottenden A, Getliffe K, Gage H, Clarke-O'Neill S, Jamieson K, et al. Absorbent products for urinary/faecal incontinence: a comparative evaluation of key product designs. Health Technol Assess 2008 Jul;12(29):iii-185.
 2 Fader MJ, Pettersson L, Clinton L, Dean GE, Brooks RD, Cottenden AM. Disability Equipment Assessment Report, All-in-one disposable bodyworn pads for heavy incontinence. Medical Devices Agency (UK); 1999. Report No.: IN.4.
3.1.4.3 Large Disposable Pants  1 Fader M, Cottenden A, Getliffe K, Gage H, Clarke-O'Neill S, Jamieson K, et al. Absorbent products for urinary/faecal incontinence: a comparative evaluation of key product designs. Health Technol Assess 2008 Jul;12(29):iii-185.
3.1.4.4 Washable Pads  1 Fader M, Cottenden A, Getliffe K, Gage H, Clarke-O'Neill S, Jamieson K, et al. Absorbent products for urinary/faecal incontinence: a comparative evaluation of key product designs. Health Technol Assess 2008 Jul;12(29):iii-185.
 2 Macaulay M, Clarke-ONeill S, Fader M, Pettersson L, Cottenden A. Are washable absorbents effective at containing urinary incontinence? Nursing Times 100(12):58-62, 2004 Mar 23;-29.
3.1.4.5 T-Shape Pads  1 Fader M, Cottenden A, Getliffe K, Gage H, Clarke-O'Neill S, Jamieson K, et al. Absorbent products for urinary/faecal incontinence: a comparative evaluation of key product designs. Health Technol Assess 2008 Jul;12(29):iii-185.
3.2 Female Devices  1 Lipp A SCGK. Mechanical devices for urinary incontinence in women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011.
3.2.1 External Urethral Devices  1 Eckford SD, Jackson SR, Lewis PA, Abrams P. The continence control pad--a new external urethral occlusion device in the management of stress incontinence. Br J Urol 1996 Apr;77(4):538-40.
 2 Brubaker L, Harris T, Gleason D, Newman D, North B. The external urethral barrier for stress incontinence: a multicenter trial of safety and efficacy. Miniguard Investigators Group. Obstet Gynecol 1999 Jun;93(6):932-7.
 3 Versi E, Harvey MA. Efficacy of an external urethral device in women with genuine stress urinary incontinence. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 1998;9(5):271-4.
 4 Moore KH, Simons A, Dowell C, Bryant C, Prashar S. Efficacy and user acceptability of the urethral occlusive device in women with urinary incontinence. J Urol 1999 Aug;162(2):464-8.
 5 Tincello DG, Bolderson J, Richmond DH. Preliminary experience with a urinary control device in the management of women with genuine stress incontinence. Br J Urol 1997 Nov;80(5):752-6.
 6 Tincello DG, Adams EJ, Bolderson J, Richmond DH. A urinary control device for management of female stress incontinence. Obstet Gynecol 2000 Mar;95(3):417-20.
 7 Bellin P, Smith J, Poll W, Bogojavlensky S, Knoll D, Childs S, et al. Results of a multicenter trial of the CapSure (Re/Stor) Continence shield on women with stress urinary incontinence. Urology 1998 May;51(5):697-706.
 8 Shinopulos NM, Dann JA, Smith JJ, III. Patient selection and education for use of the CapSure (Re/Stor) continence shield. Urol Nurs 1999 Jun;19(2):135-40.
3.2.2 Internal Urethral Devices  1 Balmforth J, Cardozo LD. Trends toward less invasive treatment of female stress urinary incontinence. Urology 2003 Oct;62(4 Suppl 1):52-60.
 2 Dunn M, Brandt D, Nygaard I. Treatment of exercise incontinence with a urethral insert: a pilot study. The Physician and Sports Medicine 2002 Jan;30(1).
 3 Nielsen KK, Walter S, Maegaard E, Kromann-Andersen B. The urethral plug II: an alternative treatment in women with genuine urinary stress incontinence. Br J Urol 1993 Oct;72(4):428-32.
 4 Nielsen K, Walter S, Maegaard E, Kromann-Andersen B. The urethral plug : an alternative treatment of women with urinary stress incontinence. (Danish). Ugeskrift for Laeger 1995;157(22):3194-7.
 5 Peschers U, Zen RF, Schaer GN, Schussler B. The VIVA urethral plug: a sensible expansion of the spectrum for conservative therapy of urinary stress incontinence?. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 1996 Mar;56(3):118-23.
 6 Staskin D, Bavendam T, Miller J, Davila GW, Diokno A, Knapp P, et al. Effectiveness of a urinary control insert in the management of stress urinary incontinence: early results of a multicenter study. Urology 1996 May;47(5):629-36.
 7 Miller JL, Bavendam T. Treatment with the Reliance urinary control insert: one-year experience. J Endourol 1996 Jun;10(3):287-92.
 8 Sand PK, Staskin D, Miller J, Diokno A, Sant GR, Davila GW, et al. Effect of a urinary control insert on quality of life in incontinent women. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 1999;10(2):100-5.
 9 Boos K, Anders K, Hextall A, Tooz-Hobson P, Cardozo L. Randomised trial of Reliance versus FemAssist devices in the management of genuine stress incontinence. Neurourology & Urodynamics 1998;17(4):455-6.
3.2.3 Internal Vaginal Devices  1 Realini JP, Walters MD. Vaginal diaphragm rings in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence. J Am Board Fam Pract 1990 Apr;3(2):99-103.
 2 Suarez GM, Baum NH, Jacobs J. Use of standard contraceptive diaphragm in management of stress urinary incontinence. Urology 1991 Feb;37(2):119-22.
 3 Bhatia NN, Bergman A. Pessary test in women with urinary incontinence. Obstet Gynecol 1985 Feb;65(2):220-6.
 4 Cameron A, Wallner L, Tate DG, Sarma S, Rodriguez G, Clemens JQ. Bladder management after spinal cord injury in the United States 1972 to 2005. Journal of Urology 2010.
 5 Richter HE, Burgio K, Brubaker L, Nygaard IE, Ye W, Weidner A, et al. A Trial of Continence Pessary vs. Behavioral Therapy vs. Combined Therapy for Stress Incontinence. Obstet Gynecol 2010.
 6 Biswas NC. A silastic vaginal device for the treatment of genuine stress incontinence. Neurourology & Urodynamics 1988;(7):271-2.
 7 Davila GW, Neal D, Horbach N, Peacher J, Doughtie JD, Karram M. A bladder-neck support prosthesis for women with stress and mixed incontinence. Obstet Gynecol 1999 Jun;93(6):938-42.
 8 Kondo A, Yokoyama E, Koshiba K, Fukui J, Gotoh M, Yoshikawa Y, et al. Bladder neck support prosthesis: a nonoperative treatment for stress or mixed urinary incontinence. J Urol 1997 Mar;157(3):824-7.
 9 Moore KH, Simons A, Dowell C, Bryant C, Prashar S. Efficacy and user acceptability of the urethral occlusive device in women with urinary incontinence. J Urol 1999 Aug;162(2):464-8.
 10 Morris A, Moore KH. The Contiform incontinence device - efficacy and patient acceptability. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2003.
 11 Allen WA, Leek H, Izurieta A, Moore KH. Update: the 'Contiform' intravaginal device in four sizes for the treatment of stress incontinence. International Urogynaecology Journal and Pelvic Floor Dysfunction 2008.
 12 Nygaard I. Prevention of exercise incontinence with mechanical devices. J Reprod Med 1995 Feb;40(2):89-94.
 13 Thyssen H, Lose G. New disposable vaginal device (continence guard) in the treatment of female stress incontinence. Design, efficacy and short term safety. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1996 Feb;75(2):170-3.
 14 Thyssen H, Sander P, Lose G. A vaginal device (continence guard) in the management of urge incontinence in women. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 1999;10(4):219-22.
 15 Sander P, Thyssen H, Lose G, Andersen JT. Effect of a vaginal device on quality of life with urinary stress incontinence. Obstet Gynecol 1999 Mar;93(3):407-11.
 16 Hahn I, Milsom I. Treatment of female stress urinary incontinence with a new anatomically shaped vaginal device (Conveen Continence Guard). Br J Urol 1996 May;77(5):711-5.
 17 Thyssen H, Bidmead J, Lose G, Moller BK, Dwyer P, Cardozo L. A new intravaginal device for stress incontinence in women. BJU Int 2001 Dec;88(9):889-92.
 18 Glavind K. Use of a vaginal sponge during aerobic exercises in patients with stress urinary incontinence. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 1997;8(6):351-3.
 19 Ziv E, Stanton SL, Abarbanel J. Significant improvement in the quality of life in women treated with a novel disposable intravaginal device for stress urinary incontinence. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2009.
 20 Farage M, Aronstein W, Miller KW, Karram M, Katz M, Hertzman B. A Disposable Intravaginal Device for the Management of Stress Urinary Incontinence. The open women's health journal 2011.
 21 Ziv E, Stanton SL, Abarbanel J. Efficacy and safety of a novel disposable intravaginal device for treating stress urinary incontinence. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 2008.
 22 Gorti M, Hudelist G, Simons A. Evaluation of vaginal pessary management: a UK-based survey. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2009.
3.3 Male Devices  1 Macaulay M, Broadbridge J, Gage H, Williams P, Birch B, Moore KN, Cottenden A, Fader MJ. A trial of devices for urinary incontinence after treatment for prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2015 Sep;116(3):432-42
 2 Saint S, Lipsky BA, Baker PD, McDonald LL, Ossenkop K. Urinary catheters: what type do men and their nurses prefer? J Am Geriatr Soc 1999 Dec;47(12):1453-7.
3.3.1 Sheaths  1 Chartier-Kastler E, Ballanger P, Petit J, Fourmarier M, Bart S, Ragni-Ghazarossian E, et al. Randomized, crossover study evaluating patient preference and the impact on quality of life or urisheaths vs absorbent products in incontinent men. BJU International 2011.
 2 Macaulay M, Broadbridge J, Gage H, Williams P, Birch B, Moore K, Cottenden A, Fader M A trial of male urinary devices for urinary incontinence after treatment for Prostate cancer
 3 Teunissen TAM, Lagro-Janssen ALM. Sex differences in the use of absorbent (incontinence) pads in independently living elderly people: do men receive less care? Int J Clin Pract 2009.
 4 Thelwell S, Symon C, Gay S, Dean G, Cottenden A, Feneley R. Penile sheaths: a comparative evaluation. UK: Medical Devices Agency; 1995 Nov. Report No.: A15.
 5 Fader M, Pettersson L, Dean G, Brooks R, Cottenden AM, Malone-Lee J. Sheaths for urinary incontinence: a randomized crossover trial. BJU Int 2001 Sep;88(4):367-72.
 6 Peifer DJ, Hanover RY. Clinical evaluation of the easy-flow catheter. J Rehabil Res Dev 1997 Apr;34(2):215-9.
 7 Saint S, Lipsky BA, Baker PD, McDonald LL, Ossenkop K. Urinary catheters: what type do men and their nurses prefer? J Am Geriatr Soc 1999 Dec;47(12):1453-7.
 8 Pomfret I. Penile sheaths: a guide to selection and fitting. Journal of Community Nursing 2006;20(11):14-8.
 9 Potter J. Male urinary incontinence-could penile sheaths be the answer? Journal of Community Nursing 2007;21(5):4042.
 10 Pemberton P, Brooks A, Eriksen CM, Frost S, Graham S, Greenman L, et al. A comparative study of two types of urinary sheath. Nursing Times 102(7):36-41, 2006 Feb 14;-20.
 11 Nichols T, Balis N. Male External Urinary Catheter Design Survey. 2000 Jun 4; 2000.
 12 Watson R, Kuhn M. The influence of component parts on the performance of urinary sheath systems. J Adv Nurs 1990 Apr;15(4):417-22.
 13 Jayachandran S, Mooppan UM, Kim H. Complications from external (condom) urinary drainage devices. Urology 1985 Jan;25(1):31-4.
 14 Potter PJ. Disordered control of the urinary bladder after human spinal cord injury: what are the problems? Prog Brain Res 2006;152:51-7.
 15 Bycroft J, Hamid R, Shah PJ. Penile erosion in spinal cord injury--an important lesson. Spinal Cord 41(11):643-4, 2003 Nov.
 16 Hirsh DD, Fainstein V, Musher DM. Do condom catheter collecting systems cause urinary tract infection? JAMA 1979 Jul 27;242(4):340-1.
 17 Pomfret I. Back to basics: urinary sheaths. Journal of Community Nursing 2003;17(10).
 18 Fetsch JF, Davis CJ, Jr., Hallman JR, Chung LS, Lupton GP, Sesterhenn IA. Lymphedematous fibroepithelial polyps of the glans penis and prepuce: a clinicopathologic study of 7 cases demonstrating a strong association with chronic condom catheter use. Hum Pathol 2004 Feb;35(2):190-5.
 19 Golji H. Complications of external condom drainage. Paraplegia 1981;19(3):189-97.
 20 Johnson JR, Roberts PL, Olsen RJ, Moyer KA, Stamm WE. Prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infection with a silver oxide-coated urinary catheter: clinical and microbiologic correlates. J Infect Dis 1990 Nov;162(5):1145-50.
 21 Ouslander JG, Greengold B, Chen S. External catheter use and urinary tract infections among incontinent male nursing home patients. J Am Geriatr Soc 1987 Dec;35(12):1063-70.
 22 Saint S, Kaufman SR, Rogers MA, Baker PD, Ossenkop K, Lipsky BA. Condom versus indwelling urinary catheters: a randomized trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 54(7):1055-61, 2006 Jul.
 23 Al-Awadhi NM, Al-Brahim N, Ahmad MS, Yordanov E. Giant fibroepithelial polyp of the penis associated with long-term use of condom catheter. Case report and literature review. Review 16 refs. Canadian Journal of Urology 14(4):3656-9, 2007 Aug.
3.3.2 Penile Compression Devices  1 Moore KN, Schieman S, Ackerman T, Dzus HY, Metcalfe JB, Voaklander DC. Assessing comfort, safety, and patient satisfaction with three commonly used penile compression devices. Urology 63(1):150-4, 2004 Jan.
 2 Macaulay M, Broadbridge J, Gage H, Williams P, Birch B, Moore KN, Cottenden A, Fader MJ. A trial of devices for urinary incontinence after treatment for prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2015 Sep;116(3):432-42
3.3.3 Body-Worn Urinals  1 Macaulay M, Broadbridge J, Gage H, Williams P, Birch B, Moore KN, Cottenden A, Fader MJ. A trial of devices for urinary incontinence after treatment for prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2015 Sep;116(3):432-42
 2 Golji H. Complications of external condom drainage. Paraplegia 1981;19(3):189-97.
3.3.4 Devices for penile retraction  1 Macaulay M, Broadbridge J, Gage H, Williams P, Birch B, Moore K, Cottenden A, Fader M A trial of male urinary devices for urinary incontinence after treatment for Prostate cancer
3.4 Catheters  1 Maki DG, Tambyah PA. Engineering out the risk for infection with urinary catheters. Emerg Infect Dis 2001 Mar;7(2):342-7.
3.4.1 Intermittent Catheters  1 Burgdorfer H, Heidler H, Madersbacher H. Manual neuro-urology and spinal cord lesion: guidelines for urological care of spinal cord injury patient. Parco-Pharma Gmbh 1987.
 2 Wilde MH, Brasch J, Yi Zhang. A qualitative descriptive study of self-management issues in people with long-term intermittent urinary catheters. Journal of Advanced Nursing 2011.
 3 Moore KN, Fader M, Getliffe K. Long-term bladder management by intermittent catheterisation in adults and children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007;(4):CD006008.
 4 Biering-Sorensen F, HansenH, Nielsen PN, Looms D. Residual urine after intermittent catheterization in females using two different catheters. Scandinavian Journal of Urology & Nephrology 2007.
 5 Gould CV, Umscheid CA, Agarwal RK, Kuntz G, Pegues DA. Guideline for prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections 2009. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology 2010.
 6 Logan K, Shaw C, Webber I, Samuel S, Broome L. Patients' experiences of learning clean intermittent self-catheterization: a qualitative study. J Adv Nurs 2008 Apr;62(1):32-40.
3.4.2 Indwelling Catheters  1 D'Cruz R, Soundappan SS, Cass DT, Smith G. Catheter balloon-related urethral trauma in children. Journal of Pediatrics & Child Health 2009.
 2 Gould CV, Umscheid CA, Agarwal RK, Kuntz G, Pegues DA. Guideline for prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections 2009. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology 2010.
 3 Anderson R. Pilot study to assess silicone indwelling urinary catheter change regimens. Australian and New Zealand Continence Journal 2010.
 4 Barnes KE, Malone-Lee J. Long-term catheter management: minimizing the problem of premature replacement due to balloon deflation. Journal of Advanced Nursing 1986;11(3):303-7.
 5 Maki DG, Tambyah PA. Engineering out the risk for infection with urinary catheters. Emerg Infect Dis 2001 Mar;7(2):342-7.
 6 Pratt RJ, Pellowe CM, Wilson JA, Loveday HP, Harper PJ, Jones SR, et al. epic2: National evidence-based guidelines for preventing healthcare-associated infections in NHS hospitals in England. J Hosp Infect 2007 Feb;65 Suppl 1:S1-64.
 7 Mody L, Maheshwari S, Galecki A, Kauffman CA, Bradley SF. Indwelling device use and antibiotic resistance in nursing homes: identifying a high-risk group. J Am Geriatr Soc 2007 Dec;55(12):1921-6.
 8 Donnellan SM, Bolton DM. The impact of contemporary bladder management techniques on struvite calculi associated with spinal cord injury. BJU Int 1999 Aug;84(3):280-5.
 9 Chen Y, DeVivo MJ, Lloyd LK. Bladder stone incidence in persons with spinal cord injury: determinants and trends, 1973-1996. Urology 2001 Nov;58(5):665-70.
 10 Burke JP, Garibaldi RA, Britt MR, Jacobson JA, Conti M, Alling DW. Prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Efficacy of daily meatal care regimens. Am J Med 1981 Mar;70(3):655-8.
 11 Gray M. What nursing interventions reduce the risk of symptomatic urinary tract infection in the patient with an indwelling catheter? J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs 2004 Jan;31(1):3-13.
 12 Saint S, Lipsky BA. Preventing catheter-related bacteriuria: should we? Can we? How? Arch Intern Med 1999 Apr 26;159(8):800-8.
 13 Pratt RJ, Pellowe CM, Wilson JA, Loveday HP, Harper PJ, Jones SR, et al. epic2: National evidence-based guidelines for preventing healthcare-associated infections in NHS hospitals in England. J Hosp Infect 2007 Feb;65 Suppl 1:S1-64.
 14 Raz R, Schiller D, Nicolle LE. Chronic indwelling catheter replacement before antimicrobial therapy for symptomatic urinary tract infection. J Urol 2000 Oct;164(4):1254-8.
 15 Hooton TM, Bradley SF, Cardenas DD, Colgan R, Geerlings SE, Rice JC. Diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of catheter-associated urinary tract infection in adults: 2009 international clinical practice guidelines from the infectious diseases society of America. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2010.
 16 Pickard R, Lam T, Maclennan G, Starr K, Kilonzo M, McPherson G, Gillies K, McDonald A, Walton K, Buckley B, Glazener C, Boachie C, Burr J, Norrie J, Vale L, Grant A, N'dow J.
 17 Madeo M, Barr B, Owen E. A study to determine whether the use of a preconnect urinary catheter system reduces the incidence of nosocomial urinary tract infections. Journal of Infection Prevention 2009.
 18 Thompson RL, Haley CE, Searcy MA, Guenthner SM, Kaiser DL, Groschel DH, et al. Catheter-associated bacteriuria. Failure to reduce attack rates using periodic instillations of a disinfectant into urinary drainage systems. JAMA 1984 Feb 10;251(6):747-51.
 19 Jepson RG, Mihaljevic L, Craig J. Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008;(1):CD001321.
 20 Morris NS, Stickler DJ, Winters C. Which indwelling urethral catheters resist encrustation by Proteus mirabilis biofilms? Br J Urol 1997 Jul;80(1):58-63.
 21 Morris NS, Stickler DJ. Encrustation of indwelling urethral catheters by Proteus mirabilis biofilms growing in human urine. J Hosp Infect 1998 Jul;39(3):227-34.
 22 Niel-Weise BS, van den Broek PJ. Urinary catheter policies for long-term bladder drainage. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1):CD004201, 2005.
 23 Getliffe K. Care of urinary catheters. Elder Care 1996 Apr;8(2):23-6.
 24 Jones GL, Muller CT, O'Reilly M, Stickler DJ. Effect of triclosan on the development of bacterial biofilms by urinary tract pathogens on urinary catheters. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 57(2):266-72, 2006 Feb.
 25 Stickler DJ, Morgan SD. Observations on the development of the crystalline bacterial biofilms that encrust and block Foley catheters. Journal of Hospital Infection 2008.
 26 Sabbuba NA, Stickler DJ, Long MJ, Dong Z, Short TD, Feneley RJ. Does the valve regulated release of urine from the bladder decrease encrustation and blockage of indwelling catheters by crystalline proteus mirabilis biofilms? Journal of Urology 173(1):262-6, 2005 Jan.
 27 Stickler DJ, Morgan SD. Modulation of crystalline Proteus mirabilis biofilm development on urinary catheters. Journal of Medical Microbiology 55(Pt 5):489-94, 2006 May.
 28 Darouiche RO, Goetz L, Kaldis T, Cerra-Stewart C, AlSharif A, Priebe M. Impact of StatLock securing device on symptomatic catheter-related urinary tract infection: a prospective, randomized, multicenter clinical trial. Am J Infect Control 2006 Nov;34(9):555-60.
 29 Gibney L. Offering patients a choice of urinary catheter drainage system. British Journal of Nursing (BJN) 2010.
3.4.3 Accessories  1 Gray M. What nursing interventions reduce the risk of symptomatic urinary tract infection in the patient with an indwelling catheter? J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs 2004 Jan;31(1):3-13.
 2 Burke JP, Garibaldi RA, Britt MR, Jacobson JA, Conti M, Alling DW. Prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Efficacy of daily meatal care regimens. Am J Med 1981 Mar;70(3):655-8.
 3 Saint S, Veenstra DL, Sullivan SD, Chenoweth C, Fendrick AM. The potential clinical and economic benefits of silver alloy urinary catheters in preventing urinary tract infection. Arch Intern Med 2000 Sep 25;160(17):2670-5.
3.5.1 Leg Bags  1 Wilson M, Coates D. Infection control and urine drainage bag design. Prof Nurse 1996 Jan;11(4):245-9, 251.
 2 Fader M, Thelwell S, Symon C, Gay S, Cottenden A, Dean G, et al. Sterile 500ml leg bags for urine drainage: a multi-centre comparative evaluation. UK: Medical Devices Agency; 1996 Feb. Report No.: A20.
3.5.1.2 Sterile and Non-sterile  1 Pratt RJ, Pellowe CM, Wilson JA, Loveday HP, Harper PJ, Jones SR, et al. epic2: National evidence-based guidelines for preventing healthcare-associated infections in NHS hospitals in England. J Hosp Infect 2007 Feb;65 Suppl 1:S1-64.
3.5.1.3 Drainage Taps  1 Wilson M, Coates D. Infection control and urine drainage bag design. Prof Nurse 1996 Jan;11(4):245-9, 251.
 2 Fader M, Thelwell S, Symon C, Gay S, Cottenden A, Dean G, et al. Sterile 500ml leg bags for urine drainage: a multi-centre comparative evaluation. UK: Medical Devices Agency; 1996 Feb. Report No.: A20.
3.5.1.6 Positioning  1 Pomfret IJ. Catheters: design, selection and management. Br J Nurs 1996 Feb 22;5(4):245-51.
3.5.1.8 Infection Control  1 Glenister H. The journal of infection control nursing. The passage of infection. Nurs Times 1987 Jun 3;83(22):68-73.
 2 Pratt RJ, Pellowe CM, Wilson JA, Loveday HP, Harper PJ, Jones SR, et al. epic2: National evidence-based guidelines for preventing healthcare-associated infections in NHS hospitals in England. J Hosp Infect 2007 Feb;65 Suppl 1:S1-64.
 3 Thompson RL, Haley CE, Searcy MA, Guenthner SM, Kaiser DL, Groschel DH, et al. Catheter-associated bacteriuria. Failure to reduce attack rates using periodic instillations of a disinfectant into urinary drainage systems. JAMA 1984 Feb 10;251(6):747-51.
 4 Dille CA, Kirchhoff KT, Sullivan JJ, Larson E. Increasing the wearing time of vinyl urinary drainage bags by decontamination with bleach. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1993 Apr;74(4):431-7.
 5 Tsumura H, Satoh T, Kurosaka S, Fujita T, Matsumoto K, Baba S. Clinical characteristics in patients with purple urine bag syndrome. Hinyokika Kiyo Acta Urologica Japonica 2008.
 6 Mantani N, Ochiai H, Imanishi N, Kogure T, Terasawa K, Tamura J. A case-control study of purple urine bag syndrome in geriatric wards. J Infect Chemother 2003 Mar;9(1):53-7.
3.5.1.9 Anti Kinking  1 Wong ES. Guideline for prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Am J Infect Control 1983 Feb;11(1):28-36.
 2 Lowthian P. The dangers of long-term catheter drainage. Br J Nurs 1998 Apr 9;7(7):366-8, 370, 372.
 3 Pratt RJ, Pellowe CM, Wilson JA, Loveday HP, Harper PJ, Jones SR, et al. epic2: National evidence-based guidelines for preventing healthcare-associated infections in NHS hospitals in England. J Hosp Infect 2007 Feb;65 Suppl 1:S1-64.
 4 Garcia MF, Knight SL, Greenwell T, Mundy AR, Craggs MD. "Flowsecure" artificial urinary sphincter: a new adjustable artificial urinary sphincter concept with conditional occlusion for stress urinary incontinence. Spanish. Actas Urologicas Espanolas 31(7):752-8, 2007 Jul;-Aug.
 5 Pomfret IJ. Catheters: design, selection and management. Br J Nurs 1996 Feb 22;5(4):245-51.
3.5.2 Large Capacity  1 Wong ES. Guideline for prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Am J Infect Control 1983 Feb;11(1):28-36.
 2 Lowthian P. The dangers of long-term catheter drainage. Br J Nurs 1998 Apr 9;7(7):366-8, 370, 372.
 3 Pratt RJ, Pellowe CM, Wilson JA, Loveday HP, Harper PJ, Jones SR, et al. epic2: National evidence-based guidelines for preventing healthcare-associated infections in NHS hospitals in England. J Hosp Infect 2007 Feb;65 Suppl 1:S1-64.
 4 Thompson RL, Haley CE, Searcy MA, Guenthner SM, Kaiser DL, Groschel DH, et al. Catheter-associated bacteriuria. Failure to reduce attack rates using periodic instillations of a disinfectant into urinary drainage systems. JAMA 1984 Feb 10;251(6):747-51.
 5 Roe BH, Reid FJ, Brocklehurst JC. Comparison of four urine drainage systems. J Adv Nurs 1988 May;13(3):374-82.
3.6 Faecal Devices  1 Peden-McAlpine C, Bliss D, Hill J. The experience of community-living women managing fecal incontinence. Western Journal of Nursing Research 2008.
 2 Bliss D, Lewis J, Hasselman K, Savik K, Lowry A, Whitebird R. Use and Evaluation of Disposable Absorbent Products for Managing Fecal Incontinence by Community-Living People. Journal of Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nursing 2011.
3.6.1 Anal Plugs  1 Mortensen N, Humphreys MS. The anal continence plug: a disposable device for patients with anorectal incontinence. Lancet 1991 Aug 3;338(8762):295-7.
 2 Norton C, Kamm MA. Anal plug for faecal incontinence. Colorectal Dis 2001 Sep;3(5):323-7.
 3 Bond C, Youngson G, MacPherson I, Garrett A, Bain N, Donald S, et al. Anal plugs for the management of fecal incontinence in children and adults: a randomized control trial. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 41(1):45-53, 2007 Jan.
 4 Van WM, Van BS, Van LE, Hoebeke P. Is an anal plug useful in the treatment of fecal incontinence in children with spina bifida or anal atresia? Journal of Urology 176(1):342-4, 2006 Jul.
 5 Pfrommer W, Holschneider AM, Loffler N, Schauff B, Ure BM. A new polyurethane anal plug in the treatment of incontinence after anal atresia repair. Eur J Pediatr Surg 2000 Jun;10(3):186-90.
 6 Chew MH, Quah HM, Ooi BS, Lim JF, Ho KS, Tang CL, et al. A prospective study assessing anal plug for containment of faecal soilage and incontinence. Colorectal Dis 2007.
 7 Christiansen J, Roed-Petersen K. Clinical assessment of the anal continence plug. Dis Colon Rectum 1993 Aug;36(8):740-2.
 8 Cazemier M, Felt-Bersma RJ, Mulder CJ. Anal plugs and retrograde colonic irrigation are helpful in fecal incontinence or constipation. World Journal of Gastroenterology 13(22):3101-5, 2007 Jun 14.
 9 Giamundo P, Welber A, Weiss EG, Vernava AM, III, Nogueras JJ, Wexner SD. The procon incontinence device: a new nonsurgical approach to preventing episodes of fecal incontinence. Am J Gastroenterol 2002 Sep;97(9):2328-32.
3.6.2 Faecal Pads  1 Bliss DZ, Savik K. Use of an absorbent dressing specifically for fecal incontinence. Journal of Wound, Ostomy, & Continence Nursing 35(2):221-8, 2008 Mar;-Apr.
3.6.3 Faecal Collectors  1 Fujii M, Sato TN, Ohrui T, Sato T, Sasaki H. Interanal stool bag for the bedridden elderly with pressure ulcer. Geriatrics & Gerontology International, 2004;4(2):120-2.
 2 Kim J, Shim MC, Choi BY, Ahn SH, Jang SH, Shin HJ. Clinical application of continent anal plug in bedridden patients with intractable diarrhea. Dis Colon Rectum 2001 Aug;44(8):1162-7.
 3 Grogan TA, Kramer DJ. The rectal trumpet: use of a nasopharyngeal airway to contain fecal incontinence in critically ill patients. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs 2002 Jul;29(4):193-201.
 4 Padmanabhan A, Stern M, Wishin J, Mangino M, Richey K, DeSane M, et al. Clinical evaluation of a flexible fecal incontinence management system.see comment. American Journal of Critical Care 16(4):384-93, 2007 Jul.
 5 Duso S. Product notebook: a new fecal containment device. A case study describing one use of the Bard FCD fecal containment device. Ostomy Wound Manage 1992 Jun;38(5):38-41.
 6 Hanlon M, Cofone E. Patient with frequent liquid stools resulting in a chemical dermatitis and a perianal ulcer. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs 1996 May;23(3):174-7.
 7 Ross V. The fecal containment device: one answer to a dreaded procedure. Ostomy Wound Manage 1993 Sep;39(7):42-4, 46.
 8 Kowal-Vern A, Poulakidas S, Barnett B, Conway D, Culver D, Ferrari M, et al. Fecal Containment in Bedridden Patients: Economic Impact of 2 Commercial Bowel Catheter Systems. American Journal of Critical Care 2009.
 9 Palmieri B, Benuzzi G, Bellini N. The anal bag: a modern approach to fecal incontinence management. Ostomy Wound Management 51(12):44-52, 2005 Dec.
 10 Benoit RA, Jr., Watts C. The effect of a pressure ulcer prevention program and the bowel management system in reducing pressure ulcer prevalence in an ICU setting. Journal of Wound, Ostomy, & Continence Nursing 34(2):163-75; quiz 176-7, 2007 Mar;-Apr.
 11 Freedman P. The rectal pouch: a safer alternative to rectal tubes. Am J Nurs 1991 May;91(5):105-6.
 12 Bosley C. Three methods of stool management for patients with diarrhea. Ostomy Wound Manage 1994 Jan;40(1):52-7.
 13 Keshava A, Renwick A, Stewart P, Pilley A. A nonsurgical means of fecal diversion: the Zassi Bowel Management System. Dis Colon Rectum 2007 Jul;50(7):1017-22.
 14 Rainville N. Does a foley belong in the rectum? Am J Nurs 1987;87(2):175.
 15 Page BP, Boyce SA, Deans C, Camilleri-Brennan J. Significant Rectal Bleeding as a Complication of a Fecal Collecting Device: Report of a Case. Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 2008.
 16 Bright E, Fishwick G, Berry D, Thomas M. Indwelling bowel management system as a cause of life-threatening rectal bleeding. Case reports in gastroenterology 2008.
 17 Safaz I, Kesikburun S, Omac OK, Tugcu I, Alaca R. Autonomic Dysreflexia as a Complication of a Fecal Management System in a Man With Tetraplegia . Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine 2010.
 18 Beitz JM. Fecal incontinence in acutely and critically ill patients: options in management. Ostomy Wound Management 52(12):56-8, 60, 62-6, 2006 Dec.
3.7.1 Handheld Urinals  1 Pomfret I, Vickerman J, Tonge P. Introducing a hand-held urinal service in secondary care. Nursing Times 101(18):68, 70-1, 2005 May 3;-9.
 2 Vickerman J. Selecting urinals for male patients. Nursing Times 102(19):47-8, 2006 May 9;-15.
 3 Vickerman J. The benefits of a lending library for female urinals. Nursing Times 99(44):56-7, 2003 Nov 4;-10.
3.7.1.1 Female Handheld Urinals  1 Macaulay M, van den HE, Jowitt F, Clarke-O'Neill S, Kardas P, Blijham N, et al. A noninvasive continence management system: development and evaluation of a novel toileting device for women. Journal of Wound, Ostomy, & Continence Nursing 34(6):641-8, 2007 Nov;-Dec.
 2 Fader M, Pettersson L, Dean G, Brooks R, Cottenden A. The selection of female urinals: results of a multicentre evaluation. Br J Nurs 1999 Jul 22;8(14):918-5.
 3 Macaulay M, Clarke-O'Neill S, Cottenden A, Fader M, van den HE, Jowitt F. Female urinals for women with impaired mobility. Nursing Times 102(42):42-3, 45, 47, 2006 Oct 17;-23.
 4 McIntosh J. A guide to female urinals. Nurs Times 2001 Feb 8;97(6):VII-VIX.
3.7.1.2 Male Handheld Urinals  1 Vickerman J. Selecting urinals for male patients. Nursing Times 102(19):47-8, 2006 May 9;-15.
3.7.2 Bedpans  1 Wells T, Brink C. Urinary continence/incontinence: What's available to make life pleasanter for patients and staff. Geriatr Nurs 1980 Nov; 1(4):264-9, 276
 2 Naylor JR, Mulley GP. Commodes: inconvenient conveniences. BMJ 1993 Nov 13;307(6914):1258-60.
 3 MacIntosh J. Realising the potential of urinals for women. Journal of Community Nursing 1998;12(8):14-8.
 4 Fader M. Access to toilets and toileting. In: Potter J, Norton C, Cottenden C, editors. Bowel care in older people: research and practice.London: Royal College of Physicians; 2002.
3.7.7 Commodes  1 Medical Devices Agency. Basic commodes: a comparative evaluation. 1994.
 2 Fader MJ, Pettersson L, Clinton L, Dean G, Brooks R, Cottenden A. Basic commodes: a comparative evaluation. Medical Devices Agency; 2004. Report No.: A5.
 3 Gillan J. Seat of the motions. Nursing Times 1999;95:26.
 4 Bucior H, Cochrane J. Lifting the lid: a clinical audit on commode cleaning. Journal of Infection Prevention 2010.
 5 Nazarko L. Commode design for frail and disabled people. Prof Nurse 1995 Nov;11(2):95-7.
 6 Naylor JR, Mulley GP. Commodes: inconvenient conveniences. BMJ 1993 Nov 13;307(6914):1258-60.
 7 Ballinger C, Pain H, Pascoe J, Gore S. Choosing a commode for the ward environment. Br J Nurs 1996 Apr 25;5(8):485-500.
 8 Matsumoto M, Inoue K. Predictors of institutionalization in elderly people living at home: the impact of incontinence and commode use in rural Japan. J Cross Cult Gerontol 2007 Dec;22(4):421-32.
 9 Fader M. Access to toilets and toileting. In: Potter J, Norton C, Cottenden C, editors. Bowel care in older people: research and practice.London: Royal College of Physicians; 2002.
3.8.1 Washable Underpads  1 Cottenden AM. Aids and appliances for incontinence. The promotion and management of continence. Prentice Hall; 1992.
 2 Leiby DM, Shanahan N. Clinical study: assessing the performance and skin environments of two reusable underpads. Ostomy Wound Manage 1994 Oct;40(8):30-7.
 3 Cottenden AM, Moore KN, Fader MJ, Cremer AW. Is there a risk of cross-infection from laundered reusable bedpads? Br J Nurs 1999 Sep 23;8(17):1161-3.
3.8.2 Disposable Underpads  1 Henderson DJ, Rogers WF. Hospital trials of incontinence underpads. Nurs Times 1971 Feb 4;67(5):141-3.
 2 Thornburn P, Cottenden A, Ledger D. Continence. Undercover trials. Nurs Times 1992 Mar 25;88(13):72-8.
 3 Brown DS. Diapers and underpads, Part 1: Skin integrity outcomes. Ostomy Wound Manage 1994 Nov;40(9):20-6, 28.
 4 Cottenden AM, Ledger DJ. Predicting the leakage performance of bodyworn disposable incontinence pads using laboratory tests. J Biomed Eng 1993 May;15(3):212-20.
 5 Bradbury SM. Incontinence pads and clostridium infection. J Hosp Infect 1985 Mar;6(1):115.
 6 Leigh DA, Petch VJ. Sterility of incontinence pads and sheets. J Hosp Infect 1987 Jan;9(1):91-3.
 7 Sprott MS, Kearns AM, Keenlyside D. A microbiological study of absorbent pads. J Hosp Infect 1988 Aug;12(2):125-9.
 8 Stansfield R, Caudle S. Bacillus cereus and orthopaedic surgical wound infection associated with incontinence pads manufactured from virgin wood pulp. J Hosp Infect 1997 Dec;37(4):336-8.
2.7 Assessing your needs  1 Mitteness LS, Barker JC. Stigmatizing a "normal" condition: urinary incontinence in late life. Med Anthropol Q 1995 Jun;9(2):188-210.
 2 Paterson J. Stigma associated with post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence. Journal of Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nursing 2000;27(3):168-73.
 3 Gibb H, Wong G. How to choose: nurses' judgements of the effectiveness of a range of currently marketed continence aids. J Clin Nurs 1994 Mar;3(2):77-86.
 4 Proudfoot LM, Farmer ES, McIntosh JB. Testing incontinence pads using single-case research designs. Br J Nurs 1994 Apr 14;3(7):316, 318-20, 322.
 5 Phillips B, Zhao H. Predictors of assistive technology abandonment. Assist Technol 1993;5(1):36-45.
 6 McMillen A-M, Soderberg S. Disabled persons' experience of dependence on assistive devices. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy 2002;(9):176-83.
 7 Hocking C. Function or feelings: factors in abandonment of assistive devices. Technology and Disability 1999;(11):3-11.
 8 Koch T, Kralik D, Eastwood S, Schofield A. Breaking the silence: women living with multiple sclerosis and urinary incontinence. Int J Nurs Pract 2001 Feb;7(1):16-23.
 9 Paterson J, Dunn S, Kowanko I, van LA, Stein I, Pretty L. Selection of continence products: perspectives of people who have incontinence and their carers. Disability & Rehabilitation 25(17):955-63, 2003 Sep 2.
 10 Shaw C, Tansey R, Jackson C, Hyde C, Allan R. Barriers to help seeking in people with urinary symptoms. Fam Pract 2001 Feb;18(1):48-52.
 11 Low J. Negotiating identities, negotiating environments: an interpretation of the experiences of students with disabilities. 1996;11(2):235-248. Disability and society 1996;11(2):235-48.
2.8.1.1 Before Treatment  1 Hunskaar S, Burgio KL, Clark A Epidemiology of urinary and faecal incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse. In:Abrams P, Cardozo L, Khoury S, Wein AJ eds. Incontinence. Proceedings of 3rd international consulation on incontinence. Plymouth UK: Health Publications Ltd 2005:255-312
 2 Fontaine E. · Izadifar V. · Barthélémy Y. · Desgrippes A. · Beurton D. Urinary Continence following Radical Prostatectomy Assessed by a Self–Administered Questionnaire European UrologyVol. 37, No. 2, 2000
 3 Wilt TJ, Ahmed HU Prostate cancer screening and the management of clinically localized disease BMJ 2013;346:28-37
2.8.1.1.1 Bladder Leakage Preparation  1 Fontaine E. · Izadifar V. · Barthélémy Y. · Desgrippes A. · Beurton D. Urinary Continence following Radical Prostatectomy Assessed by a Self–Administered Questionnaire European UrologyVol. 37, No. 2, 2000
2.8.1.1.3.2 Returning Home  1 Fontaine E. · Izadifar V. · Barthélémy Y. · Desgrippes A. · Beurton D. Urinary Continence following Radical Prostatectomy Assessed by a Self–Administered Questionnaire European UrologyVol. 37, No. 2, 2000
2.8.1.1.4.1 Less than 12 Months  1 Macaulay M, Broadbridge J, Gage H, Williams P, Birch B, Moore K, Cottenden A, Fader M A trial of male urinary devices for urinary incontinence after treatment for Prostate cancer
2.8.1.1.4.2 More than 12 Months  1 Fontaine E. · Izadifar V. · Barthélémy Y. · Desgrippes A. · Beurton D. Urinary Continence following Radical Prostatectomy Assessed by a Self–Administered Questionnaire European UrologyVol. 37, No. 2, 2000
2.8.1.2.2 More than 12 Months  1 Fontaine E. · Izadifar V. · Barthélémy Y. · Desgrippes A. · Beurton D. Urinary Continence following Radical Prostatectomy Assessed by a Self–Administered Questionnaire European UrologyVol. 37, No. 2, 2000
2.8.1.2.3 Pelvic Floor Muscle Training  1 Anderson CA, Omar MI, Campbell SE, Hunter KF, Cody JD, Glazener CMA. Conservative management for postprostatectomy urinary incontinence. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2015, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD001843. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001843.pub5.

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Incontinence can often be cured. Incontinence is a problem with one or more underlying causes that can often be cured or improved. Whatever your age seeking help is always advisable. Take the first step to getting help by contacting a health professional or continence organisation in your country.

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